WASHINGTON – Combining powerful computer software programs with increasingly granular data on voters, political parties have figured out how to maintain power.

Now the voters are fighting back.

This David and Goliath battle will be on display Tuesday at the Supreme Court, where politically lopsided election maps drawn by North Carolina and Maryland lawmakers will be tested against other options designed by geographers and mathematicians, political scientists and even neuroscientists.

A cottage industry of academics and entrepreneurs from Boston to Seattle want to convince the justices that extreme partisan gerrymandering goes too far. Their work is on display on the Internet, where political novices can use programs like DistrictBuilder and Dave's Redistricting to draw their own maps.