Human rights experts say a transnational criminal syndicate committed crimes against humanity in trafficking Rohingya Muslims who fled violence and persecution in Myanmar, as well as Bangladeshi nationals trying to reach Malaysia.

Traffickers allegedly murdered, enslaved, imprisoned, tortured, raped, starved, and forced displacement of their victims between 2012 to 2015, according to a joint investigation by the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) and Bangkok-based rights group Fortify Rights.

While atrocities committed against the Rohingya in Buddhist-majority Myanmar are well-documented, the new investigation is the first to document abuses in Malaysia and Thailand. “This is the first report documenting crimes that were perpetrated outside of Myanmar,” Matthew Smith, CEO and co-founder of Fortify Rights told TIME.